Introduction Common bile duct calculi represent a pathologic entity involving obstructive icterus, cholangitis, hepatic cirrhosis or pancreatitis. Common bile duct calculi mostly have a secondary origin (from gallbladder) in 95% of cases, while primary choledocholithiasis is rare. Classification From surgical aspect, common bile duct calculi can be: 1. Asymptomatic, without manifested symptoms or signs,2. Mobile, with intermittent biliar obstruction and disobstruction, 3. Fixed, with obstruction and signs of hepato-biliary and/or bilio-pancreatic duct, 4. Transitory, microcalculi which pass through Vater's Papilla by propulsion into duodenum with symptoms. Discussion Modern biliary surgery includes diagnosis of common bile duct calculi, and if possible preoperative endoscopic (endoluminal) surgery, which is less invasive for patients. If such approach is not possible, it is necessary to perform stone extraction and cholecystectomy. Conclusion Common bile duct calculi represent a common disease of the digestive system. Endoscopic diagnostic procedure is very important in management of choledocholithiasis Endoscopic treatment of common bile duct calculi prior to cholecystectomy is a method of choice and a strategy for associated cholecysto-choledocholithiasis.