Objective To evaluate the treatment effect of balloon kyphoplasty (Pkp) and Sky expander kyphoplasty (Sky) on vertebral compression fracture, and provide a theoretical basis for clinical application. Methods The database of Ovid medline, PubMed, Web of science, EMbase and CNKI from Jan. 1995 to Oct. 2012 were retrieved with computer, and relevant journals were manually retrieved, for the collection of the literature of therapeutic studies on treatment of vertebral compression fracture with Pkp and Sky method. The literature collected was then selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and analyzed by Meta-analysis software RevMan 5.0.25. Results A total of 4 papers were selected based on that criterion, including 146 cases of Pkp group and 83 cases of Sky group. Random effect model analysis showed no significant difference existed between the two groups regarding postoperative anterior height and column height of vertebral body, Cobb angle and pain relieve (SMD=0.50, 95%CI -0.27–1.27; SMD=0.33, 95%CI -0.11–0.77; SMD=0.46, 95%CI -0.74–1.66; SMD=-0.09, 95%CI -0.37–0.18). However, the subgroup analysis showed the effect of Sky was better than that of Pkp on restoring anterior height and column height of vertebral body and Cobb angle. Conclusion No significant difference was found regarding the treatment effect between Pkp and Sky method in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, but the clinical effect of Sky was better because of fewer complications and lower medical cost.