There is a higher sepsis rate in the intensive care unit (ICU) patients, which is one of the most important causes for patient death, but the sepsis lacks specific clinical manifestations. Exploring sensitive and specific molecular markers for infection that accurately reflect infection severity and prognosis is very clinically important. In this article, based on our previous study, we introduce some new biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis and predicting the prognosis and severity of sepsis. Increase of serum soluble(s) triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) suggests a poor prognosis of septic patients, and changes of locus rs2234237 of sTREM-1 may be the one of important mechanisms. Additionally, urine sTREM-1 can provide an early warning of possible secondary acute kidney injury (AKI) in sepsis patients. Serum sCD163 level was found to be a more important factor than procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in prognosis of sepsis, especially severe sepsis. Moreover, urine sCD163 also shows excellent performance in the diagnosis of sepsis and sepsis-associated AKI. Circulating microRNAs, such as miR-150, miR-297, miR-574-5p, miR -146a , miR-223, miR -15a and miR-16, also play important roles in the evaluation of status of septic patients. In the foreseeable future, newly-emerging technologies, including proteomics, metabonomics and trans-omics, may exert profound effects on the discovery of valuable biomarkers for sepsis.