Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) in combination with rituximab in treatment of CD20+ B cellulous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). Methods Sixty patients with CD20+ aggressive or refractory and recurrent B-NHL and treated with APBSCT in our department from Jan. 2005 to Jan. 2011 were admitted. All the subjects were divided into 2 groups according to their own choice: 25 patients received rituximab treatment (treatment group) and 35 patients were treated without rituximab treatment (control group). All patients underwent chemotherapy and APBSCT. For patients in treatment group, rituximab was used with CHOP before collecting the stem cells and after the transplantation. After transplantation, rituximab and IL-2 were used in treatment group every 3-6 months as maintenance treatment. Results No side effect was observed during the use of rituximab either before or after transplantation. The mononuclear cell count in treatment and control group was (8.2±2.9)×108/kg and (8.4±3.9)×108/kg (P=0.822), respectively; CD34+cell count was (12.3±12.7)×106/kg and (13.2±13.9)×106/kg (P=0.799), respectively. Haemopoiesis reconstruction was successfully achieved in the patients of treatment group, while 3 patients in control group failed to have haemopoiesis reconstruction. No significant difference was found between two groups on the recovery time of neutrophilic granulocytes and platelets. All patients achieved complete remission. The average follow-up time was 22 months. The disease relapsed in two patients in treatment group and six in control group. The 3-year overall survival rate in treatment group (91.6%) was a little higher than that in control group (69.5%, P=0.060). Conclusion To patients of CD20+ B lymphoma, the use of rituximab shows no side effect before or after collection of stem cell and hemopoiesis reconstruction, and the overall survival rate may be improved.