Objective To analyze the outcomes and postoperative complications of renal transplant recipients of ethnic minorities and Han population in China, and investigate the differences between them. Methods Clinical data from 89 minorit y patients and 100 Han patients who had received renal transplant of Hans' donators in Organ Transplantation Center of PLA from 1990 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The general data before transplantation, and rate of short-term survival of the graft, incidence of delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejection, and pulmonary infection after transplantation were analyzed and compared. Results No statistical difference was found in the preoperative personal profile between the recipients of minorities and Han nationality. In the recipients of minorities and Han nationality, the 1-year graft survival rate was 89.9% and 92%, the respective incidence of DGF was 28.1% and 27.0%, and the respective incidence of acute rejection was 22.5% and 19.0%, and there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). The incidence of pulmonary infection was higher in minority recipients (30.3%) than in Han recipients (10.0%, P<0.01), but no significant difference was found between Tibetan, Hui, Manchu and Mongolian recipients in 1-year graft survival rate, incidence of DGF, acute rejection and pulmonary infection (P>0.05). Conclusion The short-term clinical outcome of renal transplant recipients seems to be similar in different Chinese ethnic groups, but the incidence of pulmonary infection is higher in minority recipients, so it is important to strengthen monitoring in early postoperative period.