This study aims to analyse the correlation parameters between second molar distal caries and third molar eruption. Materials and methods: 73 cases of patients who had their third impacted or semi-impacted molars removed,were studied; they were retrieved from the archive of a private practice. The following parameters were evaluated:patients’ gender, second molars distal caries,angulation, impaction plane and mesio-distal distance between the third and second molars. Results: Of the 73 cases that were studied, 21 involved second molar distal caries (28.8%), while in 52 cases the second molars were free of caries (71.2%). Within the first group, 66.6% of the cases involved third molar distal angulation of 41°-60° and 61°-80°, with type A impaction planes in 86% and the mesio-distal distance ranging between 10 – 12 mm in 52.4%. Conclusion: Erupting third morals need to be prophylactically extracted if there is a significant risk of developing caries in adjacent second molars.