High-density lipoprotein of patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus upregulates cyclooxgenase-2 expression and prostacyclin I-2 release in endothelial cells: relationship with HDL-associated sphingosine-1-phosphate
Subjects with T2DM with or without proved large arteries atherosclerosis and normal controls (n=15 for each group) were recruited in the present study. HDL was isolated from the subjects by ultracentrifugation. The levels of HDL-associated S1P were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The protective function of diabetic HDL and S1P was evaluated by measuring cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostacyclin I-2 (PGI-2) release by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively.The S1P levels in isolated HDL were significantly increased in T2DM subjects compared with controls (235.6 +/- 13.4 vs 195.0 +/- 6.4 ng/mg, P< 0.05). The diabetic HDL exerted greater protective effects on inducing COX-2 expression and PGI-2 release by HUVECs than those of control HDL (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). Pertussis toxin, a common inhibitor of G-couple protein receptors, and VPC 23019, an antagonist of S1P receptor 1 and 3 significantly attenuated HDL-induced COX-2 expression and PGI-2 release.Diabetic HDL carries higher level of S1P compared with normal HDL, which has the potential to contribute to protective effects on endothelial cells by inducing COX-2 expression and PGI-2 release. These findings provide a new insight of S1P function in T2DM patients, possibly leading to a new therapeutic target.