The objective was to determine to what extent motivational variables and those of cultural capital influence two dimensions of reading behavior (academic and non academic) in students from two different social strata (low and medium).The sample consisted of 315 students from two senior high schools in Mexico City, aged between 15 and 20. Results of structural modeling analysis indicated that extrinsic motivational variables had more to do with academic reading behavior, whereas the combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational variables was more related to non-academic reading behavior. To a lesser extent, cultural capital also showed an influence on the two dimensions of reading behavior, but with discrepancies in relation to the social stratum of the school. These results suggest a different motivational disposition and of cultural capital in the participants in this study to explain reading behavior. Regarding the type of reading, the main differences are explained in motivational terms, and with respect to the school social stratum, differences are explained by the variables of cultural capital. Results are discussed with respect to theoretical implications in explaining reading behavior.