Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the behavioral disorders among children between the age of 7-12 who live in public or private care centers in Tehran.Material and Methods: The research method of causal-comparative and population of derelict and children 7-12 years institutionalized Tehran. Sampling was done and the way unit 128 children residing in public and private institutionalized were eligible to enter the study through behavioral assessment Rutter Scale (parents and teachers) were evaluated. A demographic list was also used. To analyze data collected, frequency table and U-Mann Whitney were conducted.Results: Results showed that abnormal behavior, social maladaptation, and the attention deficit disorder were significantly more in public than private centers. In antisocial behavior and hyperactivity-aggression no significant difference were observed. Anxiety and depression in governmental centers children is significantly higher than nongovernment centers. Children with poorly functioning families who were being held in both kind of facilities showed more behavioral disorders than orphan children.Discussion: It appears that private child care centers have been successful in working with orphaned children or those with uncaring parents. Skilled manpower and adequate distribution of resources among children (due to low numbers in each center) are considered to be part of the reason for this success.