Neutropenic enterocolitis, which has very high mortality, is one of the syndromes that may develop in immunocompromised patients. This syndrome usually develops after the usage of cytotoxic drugs and the main symptoms are fever and abdominal pain. Other than aerobic and anaerobic inhabitant bacteria of the intestine, fungi may also be the etiologic agent in this syndrome. Clinical findings, ultrasound and computed tomography are used for diagnosis. Caecum is the most involved intestinal segment and the wall thickness greater than 4 mm should be interpreted as diagnostic sign. Supporting therapy and broad spectrum antibiotics that covers possible pathogens should be started for neutropenic enterocolitis. Surgery should be considered in patients with clinical deterioration, perforation and uncontrolled hemorrhage.