Associations of oxidative stress and inflammation and their role in the regulation of membrane fluidity of red blood cells in hypertensive and normotensive men: An electron spin resonance investigation
There is evidence showing that increased levels of oxidative stress and C-reactive protein (CRP) might be associated with obesity, hypertension, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study was undertaken to investigate possible relationships among plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PG F2α: an index of oxidative stress), high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP and membrane fluidity (a reciprocal value of microviscosity) in hypertensive and normotensive men using an electron spin resonance (ESR)-method. The order parameter (S) for the spin-label agents (5-nitroxide stearate) of red blood cell (RBC) membranes in the ESR spectra was significantly higher in hypertensive men than in normotensive men, indicating that membrane fluidity was decreased in hypertensive men. Both plasma 8-iso-PG F2α and hs-CRP levels were significantly increased in hypertensive men compared with normotensive men. In addition, plasma plasma 8-iso-PG F2α levels were correlated with plasma hs-CRP levels. In contrast, plasma nitric oxide (NO)-metabolites were lower in hypertensive men than in normotensive men, and inversely correlated with plasma 8-iso-PG F2α and hs-CRP. The order parameter(S) of RBCs was correlated with plasma 8-iso-PG F2α and plasma hs-CRP, and inversely correlated with plasma NO-metabolites, suggesting that reduced membrane fluidity of RBCs might be associated with increased oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Multivariate regression analysis also showed that, after adjusting for general risk factors, both plasma 8-iso-PG F2α and hs-CRP were significant determinants of membrane fluidity of RBCs. The ESR suggests that associations of oxidative stress and inflammation might have a close correlation with impaired rheologic behavior of RBCs and microcirculatory dysfunction in hypertensive men.
Rahsepar, A.A., et al. (2011) Prooxidant-antioxidant balance and antioxidized LDL antibody level values and cardiac function in patients with coronary artery disease. Cardiology, 122, 203-209. doi:10.1159/000339273
Dhawan, V. and Jain, S. (2004) Effect of garlic supplementation on oxidized low density lipoprotein and lipid peroxidation in patients of essential hypertension. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 266, 109-115.
Vassalle, C., Botto, N., Andreassi, M. G., Berti, S. and Biagini, A. (2003) Evidence for enhanced 8-isoprostane plasma levels, as index of oxidative stress in vivo, in patients with coronary artery disease. Coronary Artery Disease, 14, 213-218.
Venugopal, S.K., Devaraj, S., Yuhanna, I., Shaul, P. and Jialal, I. (2002) Demonstration that C-reactive protein decreases eNOS expression and bioactivity in human aortic endothelial cells. Circulation, 106, 1439-1441.
Qamirani, E., Ren, Y., Kuo, L and Hein, T.W. (2005) C-reactive protein inhibits endothelium-dependent NO-mediated dilatation in coronary arterioles by activating p38 kinase and NAD(P)H oxidase. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 25, 995-1001.
Jarvisalo, M.J., et al. (2002) Elevated serum C-reactive protein levels and early arterial changes in healthy children. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 22, 1323-1328.
Tsuda, K, Kimura, K., Nishio, I. and Masuyama, Y. (2000) Nitric oxide improves membrane fluidity of erythrocytes in essential hypertension: An electron paramagnetic resonance investigation. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 275, 946-954.
Tsuda, K., Kinoshita, Y., Kimura, K., Nishio, I. and Masuyama, Y. (2001) Electron paramagnetic resonance investigation on modulatory effect of 17β-estradiol on membrane fluidity of erythrocytes in postmenopausal women. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 21, 1306-1312. doi:10.1161/hq0801.093507
Tsuda, K., Kinoshita-Shimamoto, Y., Kimura, K. and Nishio, I. (2003) Nitric oxide is a determinant of membrane fluidity of erythrocytes in postmenopausal women: An electron paramagnetic resonance investigation. American Journal of Hypertension, 16, 244-248.
Tsuda, K. (2010) Oxidative stress and membrane fluidity of red blood cells in hypertensive and normotensive men: An electron spin resonance investigation. International Heart Journal, 51, 121-124. doi:10.1536/ihj.51.121
Tsuda, K. (2012) Associations between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and membrane fluidity of red blood cells in hypertensive elderly men: An electron spin resonance study. International Journal of Hypertension, 2012, Article ID: 292803. doi:10.1155/2012/292803
Le Sang Quan, K.H., Levenson, J., Del Pino, M., Simon, A. and Devynck, M.A. (1993) In vivo shear flow and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in hypertensive patients. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 36, 437-443.
Cazzola, R., Rondanelli, M., Russo-Volpe, S., Ferrari, E. and Cestaro, B. (2004) Decreased membrane fluidity and altered susceptibility to peroxidation and lipid composition in overweight and obese female erythrocytes. Journal of Lipid Research, 45, 1846-1851.
Zou, C.G., Agar, N.S. and Jones, G.L. (2001) Oxidative insult to human red blood cells induced by free radical initiator AAPH and its inhibition by commercial antioxidant mixture. Life Sciences, 69, 75-86.