A survey of the production of polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA) of manipulated plankton communities is presented here. PUA are phytoplankton-derived metabolites that are proposed to play an important role in chemically mediated plankton interactions. Blooms of different intensities of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi were generated in eight mesocosms filled with water from the surrounding fjord by adding different amounts of a starting culture and nutrients. This set-up allowed us to follow PUA production of the plankton community over the entire induced bloom development, and to compare it with the natural levels of PUA. We found that S. marinoi is a major source for the particulate PUA 2,4-heptadienal and 2,4-octadienal (defined as PUA released upon wounding of the diatom cells) during the entire bloom development. Just before, and during, the decline of the induced diatom blooms, these PUA were also detected in up to 1 nM concentrations dissolved in the water. In addition, we detected high levels of the PUA 2,4-decadienal that was not produced by the diatom S. marinoi. Particulate decadienal correlated well with the cell counts of the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis sp. that also developed in the fertilized mesocosms. Particulate decadienal levels were often even higher than those of diatom-derived PUA, indicating that PUA sources other than diatoms should be considered when it comes to the evaluation of the impact of these metabolites.
Wichard, T; Poulet, SA; Boulesteix, AL; Ledoux, JB; Lebreton, B; Marchetti, J; Pohnert, G. Influence of diatoms on copepod reproduction. II. Uncorrelated effects of diatom-derived alpha,beta,gamma,delta-unsaturated aldehydes and polyunsaturated fatty acids on Calanus helgolandicus in the field. Prog Oceanogr 2008, 77(1), 30–44.
Wichard, T; Poulet, SA; Halsband-Lenk, C; Albaina, A; Harris, R; Liu, DY; Pohnert, G. Survey of the chemical defence potential of diatoms: Screening of fifty one species for alpha,beta,gamma,delta-unsaturated aldehydes. J Chem Ecol 2005, 31(4), 949–958.
Ribalet, F; Vidoudez, C; Cassin, D; Pohnert, G; Ianora, A; Miralto, A; Casotti, R. High plasticity in the production of diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes under nutrient limitation: physiological and ecological implications. Protist 2009, 160(3), 444–451.
Yamasaki, Y; Nagasoe, S; Matsubara, T; Shikata, T; Shimasaki, Y; Oshima, Y; Honjo, T. Allelopathic interactions between the bacillariophyte Skeletonema costatum and the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 2007, 339, 83–92.
Ask, J; Reinikainen, M; Bamstedt, U. Variation in hatching success and egg production of Eurytemora affinis (Calanoida, Copepoda) from the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea, in relation to abundance and clonal differences of diatoms. J Plankton Res 2006, 28(7), 683–694.
Pohnert, G; Lumineau, O; Cueff, A; Adolph, S; Cordevant, C; Lange, M; Poulet, S. Are volatile unsaturated aldehydes from diatoms the main line of chemical defence against copepods. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 2002, 245, 33–45.
Barofsky, A; Simonelli, P; Vidoudez, C; Troedsson, C; Nejstgaard, JC; Jakobsen, HH; Pohnert, G. Growth phase of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi influences the metabolic profile of the cells and the selective feeding of the copepod Calanus spp. J Plankton Res 2010, 32(3), 263–272.
Adolph, S; Bach, S; Blondel, M; Cueff, A; Moreau, M; Pohnert, G; Poulet, SA; Wichard, T; Zuccaro, A. Cytotoxicity of diatom-derived oxylipins in organisms belonging to different phyla. J Exp Biol 2004, 207(17), 2935–2946.
Wichard, T; Poulet, SA; Pohnert, G. Determination and quantification of alpha,beta,gamma,delta-unsaturated aldehydes as pentafluorobenzyl-oxime derivates in diatom cultures and natural phytoplankton populations: application in marine field studies. J Chrom B 2005, 814(1), 155–161.