Oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification and denitrification (OLAND) is a biological nitrogen removal process coupled with partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. In our study, the nitrification was blocked at nitrite stage by controlling the dissolved oxygen concentration at 0.1-0.3 mg.L-1, and then, the denitrification proceeded, with the residual ammonium at the partial nitrification stage as electron donor. As a completely autotrophic nitrification-denitrification process, the OLAND was of many advantages (e.g., low energy consumption, high nitrogen removal rate and small footprint of system), and suitable in particular for treating low COD/NH4(+)-N ratio wastewater. It has become one of the most prosperous and practicable biological nitrogen removal technologies. The recent research of OLAND was reviewed, and its microbial mechanism as well as its applicable prospect was remarked in this paper.