All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

PLOS ONE  2011 

Intentional Modulation of the Late Positive Potential in Response to Smoking Cues by Cognitive Strategies in Smokers

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027519

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Attentional bias is considered an important concept in addiction since it has been found to correlate with subjective craving and is strongly associated with relapse after periods of abstinence. Hence, investigating in ways to regulate attention for drug cues would be of major clinical relevance. The present study examined deliberate, cognitive modulation of motivated attention for smoking cues in smokers. The effects of three different reappraisal strategies on an electrophysiological measure of attentive processing were investigated. Early and late LPP components in response to passively viewed neutral and smoking pictures were compared with LPPs in response to smoking pictures that were reappraised with three different reappraisal strategies. Results show that when smokers actively imagine how pleasant it would be to smoke (pleasant condition), their early LPP in response to smoking cues increases, but when smokers actively focus on an alternative stimulus (distraction condition) or think of a rational, uninvolved interpretation of the situation (rational condition), smoking-related late LPP amplitude decreases to the processing level of neutral stimuli. Present results are the first to indicate that smoking cue-elicited LPP amplitudes can be modulated by cognitive strategies, suggesting that attentive processing of smoking cues can be intentionally regulated by smokers with various levels of dependence. Although cognitive strategies can lead to enhanced processing of smoking cues, it is not completely clear whether cognitive strategies are also successful in reducing smoking-related motivated attention. Although findings do point in this direction, present study is best considered preliminary and a starting point for other research on this topic. A focus on the distraction strategy is proposed, as there are indications that this strategy is more successful than the rational strategy in decreasing LPP amplitude.


[1]  Field M, Cox WM (2008) Attentional bias in addictive behaviors: A review of its development, causes, and consequences. Drug Alcohol Depend 97: 1–20.
[2]  Munafo M, Mogg K, Roberts S, Bradley BP, Murphy M (2003) Selective processing of smoking-related cues in current smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers on the modified Stroop task. J Psychopharmacol 17: 310–316.
[3]  Mogg K, Bradley BP, Field M, De Houwer J (2003) Eye movements to smoking-related pictures in smokers: relationship between attentional biases and implicit and explicit measures of stimulus valence. Addiction 98: 825–836.
[4]  Robinson TE, Berridge KC (1993) The neural basis of drug craving: an incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 18: 247–291.
[5]  Franken IH (2003) Drug craving and addiction: integrating psychological and neuropsychopharmacological approaches. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 27: 563–579.
[6]  Field M, Munafo M, Franken IH (2009) A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between attentional bias and subjective craving in substance abuse. Psychol Bull 135: 589–607.
[7]  Waters AJ, Shiffman S, Sayette MA, Paty JA, Gwaltney CJ, et al. (2003) Attentional bias predicts outcome in smoking cessation. Health Psychol 22: 378–387.
[8]  Cox WM, Hogan LM, Kristian MR, Race JH (2002) Alcohol attentional bias as a predictor of alcohol abusers' treatment outcome. Drug Alcohol Depend 68: 237–243.
[9]  Carpenter KM, Schreiber E, Church S, McDowell D (2006) Drug Stroop performance: relationships with primary substance of use and treatment outcome in a drug-dependent outpatient sample. Addict Behav 31: 174–181.
[10]  Marissen MA, Franken IH, Waters AJ, Blanken P, van den Brink W, et al. (2006) Attentional bias predicts heroin relapse following treatment. Addiction 101: 1306–1312.
[11]  Fadardi JS, Cox WM (2009) Reversing the sequence: reducing alcohol consumption by overcoming alcohol attentional bias. Drug Alcohol Depend 101: 137–145.
[12]  Field M, Eastwood B (2005) Experimental manipulation of attentional bias increases the motivation to drink alcohol. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 183: 350–357.
[13]  Attwood AS, O'Sullivan H, Leonards U, Mackintosh B, Munafò MR (2008) Attentional bias training and cue reactivity in cigarette smokers. Addiction 103: 1875–1882.
[14]  Kober H, Kross EF, Mischel W, Hart CL, Ochsner KN (2009) Regulation of craving by cognitive strategies in cigarette smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend 106: 52–55.
[15]  Kober H, Mende-Siedlecki P, Kross EF, Weber J, Mischel W, et al. (2010) Prefrontal-striatal pathway underlies cognitive regulation of craving. PNAS 107: 14811–14816.
[16]  Gross JJ, Levenson RW (1997) Hiding feelings: the acute effects of inhibiting negative and positive emotion. J Abnorm Psychol 106: 95–103.
[17]  Gross JJ (1998) Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. J Pers Soc Psychol 74: 224–237.
[18]  Jackson DC, Malmstadt JR, Larson CL, Davidson RJ (2000) Suppression and enhancement of emotional responses to unpleasant pictures. Psychophysiology 37: 515–522.
[19]  Dillon DG, Labar KS (2005) Startle modulation during conscious emotion regulation is arousal-dependent. Behav Neurosci 119: 1118–1124.
[20]  Hajcak G, Nieuwenhuis S (2006) Reappraisal modulates the electrocortical response to unpleasant pictures. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 6: 291–297.
[21]  Ochsner KN, Gross JJ (2008) Cognitive Emotion Regulation. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 17: 153–158.
[22]  McRae K, Hughes B, Chopra S, Gabrieli JDE, Gross JJ, et al. (2010) The Neural Bases of Distraction and Reappraisal. J Cogn Neurosci 22: 248–262.
[23]  Hajcak G, Dunning JP, Foti D (2009) Motivated and controlled attention to emotion: time-course of the late positive potential. Clin Neurophysiol 120: 505–510.
[24]  Cuthbert BN, Schupp HT, Bradley MM, Birbaumer N, Lang PJ (2000) Brain potentials in affective picture processing: covariation with autonomic arousal and affective report. Biol Psychol 52: 95–111.
[25]  Moser JS, Hajcak G, Bukay E, Simons RF (2006) Intentional modulation of emotional responding to unpleasant pictures: An ERP study. Psychophysiology 43: 292–296.
[26]  Krompinger JW, Moser JS, Simons RF (2008) Modulations of the electrophysiological response to pleasant stimuli by cognitive reappraisal. Emotion 8: 132–137.
[27]  Foti D, Hajcak G (2008) Deconstructing reappraisal: descriptions preceding arousing pictures modulate the subsequent neural response. J Cogn Neurosci 20: 977–988.
[28]  MacNamara A, Foti D, Hajcak G (2009) Tell me about it: neural activity elicited by emotional pictures and preceding descriptions. Emotion 9: 531–543.
[29]  MacNamara A, Ochsner KN, Hajcak G (2010) Previously reappraised: the lasting effect of description type on picture-elicited electrocortical activity. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci.
[30]  Schupp HT, Cuthbert BN, Bradley MM, Cacioppo JT, Ito T, et al. (2000) Affective picture processing: the late positive potential is modulated by motivational relevance. Psychophysiology 37: 257–261.
[31]  Herrmann MJ, Weijers H-G, Wiesbeck GA, Aranda D, B?ning J, et al. (2000) Event-related potentials and cue-reactivity in alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24: 1724–1729.
[32]  Herrmann MJ, Weijers H-G, Wiesbeck GA, B?ning J, Fallgatter AJ (2001) Alcohol cue-reactivity in heavy and light social drinkers as revealed by event-related potentials. Alcohol Alcohol 36: 588–593.
[33]  Namkoong K, Lee E, Lee CH, Lee BO, An SK (2004) Increased P3 amplitudes induced by alcohol-related pictures in patients with alcohol dependence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28: 1317–1323.
[34]  Franken IH, Stam CJ, Hendriks VM, van den Brink W (2003) Neurophysiological evidence for abnormal cognitive processing of drug cues in heroin dependence. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 170: 205–212.
[35]  Lubman DI, Allen NB, Peters LA, Deakin JF (2007) Electrophysiological evidence of the motivational salience of drug cues in opiate addiction. Psychol Med 37: 1203–1209.
[36]  Lubman DI, Allen NB, Peters LA, Deakin JF (2008) Electrophysiological evidence that drug cues have greater salience than other affective stimuli in opiate addiction. J Psychopharmacol 22: 836–842.
[37]  Dunning JP, Parvaz MA, Hajcak G, Maloney T, Alia-Klein N, et al. (2011) Motivated attention to cocaine and emotional cues in abstinent and current cocaine users – an ERP study. Eur J Neurosci 33: 1716–1723.
[38]  Franken IH, Dietvorst RC, Hesselmans M, Franzek EJ, van de Wetering BJ, et al. (2008) Cocaine craving is associated with electrophysiological brain responses to cocaine-related stimuli. Addict Biol 13: 386–392.
[39]  Van de Laar MC, Licht R, Franken IH, Hendriks VM (2004) Event-related potentials indicate motivational relevance of cocaine cues in abstinent cocaine addicts. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 177: 121–129.
[40]  W?lfling K, Flor H, Grüsser SM (2008) Psychophysiological responses to drug-associated stimuli in chronic heavy cannabis use. Eur J Neurosci 27: 976–983.
[41]  Littel M, Franken IH (2007) The effects of prolonged abstinence on the processing of smoking cues: an ERP study among smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers. Journal of Psychopharmacology 21: 873–882.
[42]  Littel M, Franken IH (2010) Implicit and explicit selective attention to smoking cues in smokers indexed by brain potentials. J Psychopharmacol 25: 503–513.
[43]  McDonough BE, Warren CA (2001) Effects of 12-h tobacco deprivation on event-related potentials elicited by visual smoking cues. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 154: 282–291.
[44]  Warren CA, McDonough BE (1999) Event-related brain potentials as indicators of smoking cue-reactivity. Clin Neurophysiol 110: 1570–1584.
[45]  Foti D, Hajcak G, Dien J (2009) Differentiating neural responses to emotional pictures: Evidence from temporal-spatial PCA. Psychophysiology 46: 521–530.
[46]  Sayette MA, Martin CS, Wertz JM, Shiffman S, Perrott MA (2001) A multi-dimensional analysis of cue-elicited craving in heavy smokers and tobacco chippers. Addiction 96: 1419–1432.
[47]  Shiffman S, Kassel JD, Paty J, Gnys M, Zettler-Segal M (1994) Smoking typology profiles of chippers and regular smokers. J Subst Abuse 6: 21–35.
[48]  Shiffman S, Paty JA, Kassel JD, Gnys M, Zettler-Segal M (1994) Smoking behavior and smoking history of tobacco chippers. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2: 126–142.
[49]  Shiffman S, Paty JA, Gnys M, Kassel JD, Elash C (1995) Nicotine withdrawal in chippers and regular smokers: subjective and cognitive effects. Health Psychol 14: 301–309.
[50]  Vink JM, Willemsen G, Beem AL, Boomsma DI (2005) The Fagerstr?m Test for Nicotine Dependence in a Dutch sample of daily smokers and ex-smokers. Addict Behav 30: 575–579.
[51]  Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT, Frecker RC, Fagerstr?m KO (1991) The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerstr?m Tolerance Questionnaire. Br J Addict 86: 1119–1127.
[52]  Cox LS, Tiffany ST, Christen AG (2001) Evaluation of the brief questionnaire of smoking urges (QSU-brief) in laboratory and clinical settings. Nicotine Tob Res 3: 7–16.
[53]  Tiffany ST, Drobes DJ (1991) The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. Br J Addict 86: 1467–1476.
[54]  Littel M, Franken IH, Muris P (2011) Psychometric properties of the brief Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief) in a Dutch smoker population. Neth J of Psychol 66: 44–49.
[55]  Lang PJ (1995) The emotion probe. Studies of motivation and attention. Am Psychol 50: 372–385.
[56]  Dien J, Santuzzi AM (2005) Application of repeated measures ANOVA to high-density ERP data-sets: A review and tutorial. In: Handy TC, editor. Event-Related Potentials: A methods handbook. Cambridge: The MIT Press. pp. 57–82.
[57]  Gratton G, Coles MG, Donchin E (1983) A new method for off-line removal of ocular artifact. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 55: 468–484.
[58]  Franken IH, Hulstijn KP, Stam CJ, Hendriks VM, van den Brink W (2004) Two new neurophysiological indices of cocaine craving: evoked brain potentials and cue modulated startle reflex. J Psychopharmacol 18: 544–552.
[59]  Mogg K, Field M, Bradley BP (2005) Attentional and approach biases for smoking cues in smokers: an investigation of competing theoretical views of addiction. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 180: 333–341.
[60]  Bradley BP, Mogg K, Wright T, Field M (2003) Attentional bias in drug dependence: vigilance for cigarette-related cues in smokers. Psychol Addict Behav 17: 66–72.
[61]  Hogarth LC, Mogg K, Bradley BP, Duka T, Dickinson A (2003) Attentional orienting towards smoking-related stimuli. Behav Pharmacol 14: 153–160.
[62]  Di Chiara G (2000) Role of dopamine in the behavioural actions of nicotine related to addiction. Eur J Pharmacol 393: 295–314.
[63]  Coggins CR, Murrelle EL, Carchman RA, Heidbreder C (2009) Light and intermittent cigarette smokers: a review (1989-2009). Psychopharmacology (Berl) 207: 343–363.
[64]  Schupp HT, Junghofer M, Weike AI, Hamm AO (2003) Emotional facilitation of sensory processing in the visual cortex. Psychol Sci 14: 7–13.
[65]  Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Wang GJ, Telang F, Logan J, et al. (2010) Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers. Neuroimage 49: 2536–2543.
[66]  Waters AJ, Feyerabend C (2000) Determinants and effects of attentional bias in smokers. Psychol Addict Behav 14: 111–120.
[67]  Cox WM, Pothos EM, Hosier SG (2007) Cognitive-motivational predictors of excessive drinkers' success in changing. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 192: 499–510.
[68]  Streeter CC, Terhune DB, Whitfield TH, Gruber S, Sarid-Segal O, et al. (2008) Performance on the Stroop predicts treatment compliance in cocaine-dependent individuals. Neuropsychopharmacology 33: 827–836.
[69]  Schoenmakers TM, de Bruin M, Lux IF, Goertz AG, Van Kerkhof DH, et al. (2010) Clinical effectiveness of attentional bias modification training in abstinent alcoholic patients. Drug Alcohol Depend 109: 30–36.
[70]  Field M, Duka T, Tyler E, Schoenmakers T (2009) Attentional bias modification in tobacco smokers. Nicotine Tob Res 11: 812–822.
[71]  McHugh RK, Murray HW, Hearon BA, Calkins AW, Otto MW (2010) Attentional bias and craving in smokers: the impact of a single attentional training session. Nicotine Tob Res 12: 1261–1264.
[72]  Schoenmakers T, Wiers RW, Jones BT, Bruce G, Jansen ATM (2007) Attentional re-training decreases attentional bias in heavy drinkers without generalization. Addiction 102: 399–405.
[73]  Field M, Duka T, Eastwood B, Child R, Santarcangelo M, et al. (2007) Experimental manipulation of attentional biases in heavy drinkers: do the effects generalise? Psychopharmacology 192: 593–608.
[74]  McCrady BS, Ziedonis D (2001) American Psychiatric Association practice guideline for substance use disorders. Behav Ther 32: 309–336.
[75]  O'Connell KA, Hosein VL, Schwartz JE, Leibowitz RQ (2007) How does coping help people resist lapses during smoking cessation? Health Psychol 26: 77–84.
[76]  Shiffman S, Paty JA, Gnys M, Kassel JA, Hickcox M (1996) First lapses to smoking: within-subjects analysis of real-time reports. J Consult Clin Psychol 64: 366–379.


comments powered by Disqus