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Multiple-scale spatial analysis of community structure in a mountainous mixed everareen-deciduous broad-leaved forest southwest China
西南山地阔叶混交林群落空间结构的多尺度特征

Keywords: 生态群落,空间格局,主轴邻距法,尺度,空间模型

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Abstract:

为了解植物群落在多尺度下的空间变异规律及其对空间尺度的依赖, 以川西南山地阔叶混交林为对象, 在有代表性的地段设立100 m×100 m样地, 采用传统的罗盘仪对树体的相对空间位置进行定位, 运用主轴邻距法(principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM)对群落空间结构的多尺度(100 m内)特征进行了研究。结果表明,群落均匀度指数、空隙度和开度、林分胸高断面积和林分密度在大尺度上表现出显著的空间结构。在不同的尺度下, 林分密度、叶面积指数和林下地表直接辐射都对均匀度指数有影响, 林分密度、林下地表直接辐射、生物量和空隙度都对土壤有机质含量有显著影响, 群落结构与环境因子都表现出明显的空间结构。PCNM分析可获取样本间空间关系在不同尺度上的分解向量, 与群落结构显著相关的PCNM因子即是群落或生境在该尺度上所表现出的显著的空间结构。典型相关分析结果表明群落结构因子和光因子相关性显著, 两者都与PCNM变量极显著相关且相互影响,表明群落结构和光因子都表现出显著的空间结构。因此, 利用PCNM对群落结构进行空间分析有助于理解群落空间异质性对尺度的依赖。

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