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Influence of Tempering and Steaming Requirements of Flaked Corn for Feedlot Cattle Diets

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Five trials were conducted to evaluate the influence of tempering and time, delivery rate and pressure of steam on the feeding value of Steam-Flaked Corn (SFC) for feedlot cattle. Trial 1, 4 Holstein steer with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 4 Latin square design. Treatments were: Dry Rolled Corn, no steam (DRC); Tempered Rolled Corn, no steam (TRC), tempered flaked corn, 5 min steaming time (T-5 min-SFC) and flaked corn, 25 min steaming time (25 min-SFC). There were no treatments effects (p>0.10) on ruminal digestion of OM, DIP and ruminal microbial efficiency. There was a tendency (p = 0.19) for ruminal NDF digestion to be lower for 25 min-SFC than for T-5 min-SFC. Ruminal starch digestion was greater (14.1%, p<0.05) for steam-flaked corn treatments than for rolled corn treatments. Ruminal N efficiency tended to be greater (p = 0.13) for steam flaked corn treatments then for rolled corn treatments. Post ruminal and total tract digestion of OM, starch and N were greater (p<0.05) for steam-flaked corn treatments than for rolled corn treatments (36.8 and 19.3%, respectively). Ruminal pH was lower (4.8%, p<0.05) for steam-flaked corn treatments than for rolled corn treatments. Ruminal acetate: propionate molar ratios and estimated methane production were also lower for steam-flaked corn treatments than for rolled corn treatments. In trial 2, eighty crossbred heifers (248 kg BW) were used in a 105 day randomized complete block design experiment to evaluate treatment effects: No tempering and 117 kPa of steam pressure (NT117); no tempering and 379 kPa of steam (NT379); Tempering and 117 kPa of steam (T117) and Tempering and 379 kPa of steam pressure (T379). There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on ADG, DMI, gain efficiency, or dietary NE. In trial 3, 4 Holstein steer with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4 4 Latin square to evaluate characteristics of digestion of dietary treatment fed in trial 2. Tempering did not affect (p>0. 10) ruminal digestion of OM, starch, or N. However, it increased (p<0.05) post ruminal and total tract digestion of OM (3.4 and 1.4%, respectively) and N (0.6 and 3%, respectively). Increasing steam pressure from 117-379 kPa increased (p<0.05) post ruminal (3.8%) and total tract starch digestion (0.8%). Ruminal and total tract starch digestion averaged 82 and 98%, respectively. In trial 4, 96 crossbred steer calves (347 kg BW) were used in a 56 day trial to evaluate treatment effects on performance and dietary NE value. Treatments were: no tempering and 419 kPa along a 6.35 diam steam line, measured 90 cm proximal to steam chest splitter valves. (NT419); no tempering and 335 kPa of steam (NT335); tempering and 419 kPa of steam (T419) and tempering and 335 kPa of steam pressure (T335). There were no treatment effects (p>0.20) on ADG (1.24 kg day-1), DM conversion (5.60 kg DM kg-1 ADG) and dietary NE for maintenance and gain (2.24 and 1.55 Mcal kg-1, respectively). In trial 5, 4 Holst

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