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Parvovirus B19: Evaluation of Incidence, Prevalence and Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Ante-Natal Clinic in Nasarawa State, North Central of Nigeria

DOI: 10.5923/j.cmd.20120205.03

Keywords: Parvo B19, Pregnant, Risk, Nasarawa State, Trans-placental

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Abstract:

Trans-placental transmission of parvovirus B19 during pregnancy has been reported as one of the leading causes of non-immune fetal hydrops, spontaneous abortion or intra-uterine fetal death. We therefore set out to determine the presence of parvovirus B19 (IgG and IgM) antibodies and their risk factors among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic, at Federal Medical Center, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.A total of 273 pregnant women (Age range 15-40 years) participated after informed consent and clearance from the research ethics committee. Each filled a self-administered questionnaire and donated blood samples between January and August 2012. A recombinant parvovirus B19 IgM and IgG ELISA kit from DeMediTec (USA) was used for the assays.Of the 273 participants, 36 (13.2 %) had IgM antibodies, while 75 (27.5%) had IgG antibodies with those aged 15-20 and 36-40 years having the highest incidence and prevalence rates. Being a house wife, having more children and histories of blood transfusion, miscarriage and still birth were associated with infection (P < 0.05).The study reveals high incidence and prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection among the pregnant women. The presence of parvovirus B19 IgM antibody particularly in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy poses the danger of likely trans placental transmission leading to spontaneous abortion and intra-uterine fetal death.

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