ncentration-dependent effects of fullerenol on cultured hippocampal neuron viability Original Research (2460) Total Article Views Authors: Zha YY, Yang B, Tang ML, Guo QC, Chen JT, Wen LP, Wang M Published Date June 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 3099 - 3109 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S30934 Received: 16 February 2012 Accepted: 17 April 2012 Published: 29 June 2012 Ying-ying Zha,1 Bo Yang,1 Ming-liang Tang,2 Qiu-chen Guo,1 Ju-tao Chen,1 Long-ping Wen,3 Ming Wang1 1CAS Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Disease, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 2Suzhou Institute of NanoTech and NanoBionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, 3Laboratory of Nano-biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, People's Republic of China Background: Recent studies have shown that the biological actions and toxicity of the water-soluble compound, polyhydroxyfullerene (fullerenol), are related to the concentrations present at a particular site of action. This study investigated the effects of different concentrations of fullerenol on cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Methods and results: Fullerenol at low concentrations significantly enhanced hippocampal neuron viability as tested by MTT assay and Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide double stain detection. At high concentrations, fullerenol induced apoptosis confirmed by Comet assay and assessment of caspase proteins. Conclusion: These findings suggest that fullerenol promotes cell death and protects against cell damage, depending on the concentration present. The concentration-dependent effects of fullerenol were mainly due to its influence on the reduction-oxidation pathway.