The research aims to investigate the effects of a Shintaido practice in terms of physical and psychological functioning in a group of elderly. Forty seniors, of both gender, with a mean age of (69 ± 6) years, self-sufficient and without highly invalidating diseases participated in the study. The experimental group (EG) attended the Shintaido physical training of 20 weeks (1 hour per session, twice a week), while the control group (CG) maintained his usual routine. The exercise protocol included specific activities of joint mobility, balance and breathing. At the begin and at the end of intervention were administered to both groups the following validated instruments: 1) One-leg Stance test for the measure of monopodalic static balance; 2) 6-Minutes Walking test for the endurance assessment; 3) Self-Efficacy Perception in Physical Activity (APEF) questionnaire for the self- efficacy evaluation. Data were treated with the not-parametric test for paired and unpaired samples, the Spearman correlation and the linear regression. The results show that: 1) the EG improves the endurance in walking and the monopodalic balance as well as his self-efficacy after the Shintaido program; 2) there are strong associations among Shintaido physical activity and physical/psychological variables; 3) there is a mediating effect of walking endurance between the participation to Shintaido training and the self-efficacy. The results suggest that a well structured Shintaido training can help to maintain a good level of physical and psychological functioning in old people.
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