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Pattern of ocular trauma seen in Grarbet Hospital, Butajira, Central Ethiopia

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Abstract:

Background: Ocular injury is one of the major causes of monocular visual impairment and blindness worldwide, with significant socioeconomic impact. Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology and outcome of ocular trauma cases presented to Grarbet Hospital in central Ethiopia over a one year period. Methods: This is a prospective hospital-based study in Grarbet Hospital from November 2009 to October 2010. All patients with ocular injuries seen in the eye unit for the first time were included in the study. Data on demography, initial and final visual acuities, type of injury as well as management were included in a structured questionnaire. The collected data were processed and analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 12. Result: The study involved 764 eye injuries in 753 patients, about 5% of all new patients seen during the study period at the hospital. The majority of the patients 75% (n=566) were males. The male to female ratio was 3:1. The left eye was involved in 51% (n=386) of the patients. The average age was 27 years, with a range of 5 months to 82 years. The injuries were more frequent in the 15-30 year age group followed by those in the age group of less than 15 years. Over half (57.2%) of the patients had to travel over 21 kilometers to get ophthalmic assistance. When the type of injury was analyzed, the rate of Visual Acuity < 6/60; 39.1% among those with penetrating trauma (p = 0.017), 29.5% among those with contusion (p = 0.023) and 5.4% among those with intraocular foreign body (IOFB) injury (p = 0.98). The commonest source of injury were from blunt objects 40% (n=302) and sharp objects 33% (n=250). Conclusion: Ocular injury is still a common and avoidable cause of blindness. The study shows a clear need for primary prevention and control measures. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2011;25(2):150-155]

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