A series of polylactic acid (PLA) based nanocomposite fibrous membranes, including neat PLA, PLA/hydroxyapatite (HA) and PLA/HA/graphene oxide (GO), were fabricated via electrospinning method. The morphology and composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) respectively. The thermal stability was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). To estimate the cytocompatibility of asprepared PLA/HA/GO fibrous membrane, MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured, and the corresponding cell adhesion and differentiation capability were investigated by fluorescence microscopy, SEM and MTT test. The electrospun ternary PLA/HA/GO membrane exhibited three-dimensional fibrous structure with relatively rough surface morphology, which made itself ideal for cell attachment and proliferation in bone tissue regeneration. The fluorescence microscopy, SEM and MTT test confirmed that the PLA/HA/GO nanocomposite fibrous membrane created a proper environment for the seeding and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells.