Cognition and emotion have long been thought of as independent systems. However, recent research in the cognitive and neurobiological sciences has shown that the relationship between cognition and emotion is more interdependent than separate. Based on evidence from behavioral and neuroscientific research, researchers have realized that it is necessary to propose a new conceptual framework to describe the relationship between cognition and emotion. In this article, recent research from behavioral, neuroscientific and developmental research on the interaction between cognition and emotion is summarized, and how the interaction of cognition and emotion might affect computer science and artificial intelligence is discussed. It especially focuses on the implications for affective computing.