The ability to detect and identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in a single population is often limited. Analyzing multiple populations in QTL analysis improves the power of detecting QTLs and provides a better understanding of their functional allelic variation and distribution. In this study, a consensus map of the common carp was constructed, based on four populations, to compare the distribution and variation of QTLs. The consensus map spans 2371.6 cM across the 42 linkage groups and comprises 257 microsatellites and 421 SNPs, with a mean marker interval of 3.7 cM/marker. Sixty-seven QTLs affecting four growth traits from the four populations were mapped to the consensus map. Only one QTL was common to three populations, and nine QTLs were detected in two populations. However, no QTL was common to all four populations. The results of the QTL comparison suggest that the QTLs are responsible for the phenotypic variability observed for these traits in a broad array of common carp germplasms. The study also reveals the different genetic performances between major and minor genes in different populations.