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Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Extraction methodologies of seed borne viruses in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

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Metodologías para la extracción de virus provenientes de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

Keywords: virus, transmission seed borne, extraction, fabaceas.

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Abstract:

in venezuela from 1980 the presence of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterium, fungi and virus has been indicated in most of the seeds of studied fabaceas, includes: commercial, registered, foundation, experimental; the used methods to guarantee the health of the seed, do not include tests that allow to extract the virus, do not exist registries nor knowledge in general of the introduction of viruses diseases seed borne in our country, in spite of the relevance of this form of transmission. more of 50% of the important diseases in bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) and in cowpea (vigna unguiculata (l.) walp.) more than 15 virus, seed borne transmission. for that reason, a volume was taken from 53 samples of seeds of bean and cowpea experimental, certified and common type originating of the states aragua, falcón, guárico, lara, portuguesa, and sucre as well as of argentina, chile, colombia, canada and the usa; to be processed in the extraction of virus. two protocols were used for virus extraction: the first one, an observation of viral symptoms in the first fully expanded trifoliate leaf; the second a mechanical inoculation of indicator plants using seed flour. both methodologies confirmed the presence of virus. for bean seeds, 25% of the total experimental type showed viral infection, bean seeds certified 28,6%, bean common 23,1% and 16,6% of the total imported seeds. in cowpea seed, viral infection was detected in common seed (55,5%). the methodologies verify the percentage of viral infection of the material of sowing of different areas from the country and its application will lead to establish controls that prevent the dissemination and use of material with a high viral degree of contamination.

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