Adult Still’s disease is a relatively rare form of rheumatoid arthritis with systemic inflammatory features. The prevalence is around 1.5 cases per 100,000 - 1000,000. In the current case we display a 30-year-old male patient with refractory adult still’s disease who suffered recurrent attacks of fever 39.5°C, arthritis in proximal interphalangeal joints (PIPs), wrists, tempromandibular joints (TMJs), knees and ankles, stitching chest pain, dyspnea, erythematous rash over the trunk, sore throat, weight loss (15 Kilograms in 4 months). The patients’ disease remained uncontrolled despite of synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and repeated intramuscular corticosteroid injections. Laboratory workup revealed erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 95, C-reactive protein (CRP) of 100 mg/L, hemoglobin 10.5 gm%, leukocytosis 12,000/microlitre, mild elevation of liver function tests and dyslipidemia. Serology revealed negative rheumatoid factor, anti-nuclear antibody titre of 1:80, elevated serum ferritin 4000 micrograms/litre. The patient was started on rituximab (375 mg/m2), prednisolone 20 mg/day and selective Cox-2 inhibitor. Follow up for over three months following the completion of his pulse therapy, revealed no relapse of fever or fatigue, with morning stiffness of 5 - 10 minutes, VAS of 3, DAS28 of 3.8, HAQDI of 0.62, ESR 23, CRP 4.9, Hb 12.5 gm%, leucocytic count 9000/microlitre, the dose of prednisolone was successfully reduced to a dose of 5 mg/day orally. Conclusion: Anti-CD20 therapy successfully controlled systemic and articular refractory disease with sustained efficacy over a follow up period of up to 24 weeks.
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