this study aimed to determine the association between the prevalence of hiv/aids, according to self-report for the period 2000-2005 and some structural determinants in the municipalities of the department of valle del cauca, colombia. an observational, descriptive and ecological study was conducted. the data were taken from the census of population (2005) conducted by the national administrative statistics department (dane). variables related to social structural determinants were the quality of housing, sanitary infrastructure, the minimum level of human capital and access to health care services. evidence statistically significant (p=1%, p=5%) of the association between these determinants and the prevalence of hiv in nine of 21 municipalities studied was found. the structural determination of hiv/aids deserves additional analysis that should be conducted from the perspective of economic and social rights of people affected by the virus, all in guaranteeing the right to health.