All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Wives’ Employment and Marital Dissolution: Consideration of Gender Ideology and Marital Interaction

DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.22028, PP. 213-222

Keywords: Wives’ Employment, Marital Dissolution, Gender Ideology, Marital Interaction

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

This study examines both the mediating effects of marital interaction and gender ideology, as well as the moderating effect of gender ideology in understanding the relationship between wives’ work hours and marital dissolution. This paper also explores the role of gender for couples who disagree in their relationship assessments. Wives’ additional work hours are positively associated with marital dissolution, an effect that operates through increased gender egalitarianism (for both spouses and for wives only) and decreased marital interaction (for both spouses and for wives only). Lastly, for couples who differ in their reports of gender ideology and marital interaction, the likelihood of marital dissolution is contingent upon wives’ assessments of their relationship. The implications of this study and the avenues for future research are also discussed.

References

[1]  Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[2]  Amato, P. R., Johnson, D. R., Booth, A., & Rogers, S. J. (2003). Con- tinuity and change in marital quality between 1980 and 2000. Jour- nal of Marriage and Family, 65, 1-22. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2003.00001.x
[3]  Bianchi, S. M., Milkie, M. A., Sayer, L. C., & Robinson, J. P. (2000). Is anyone doing the housework? Trends in gender division of labor. Social Forces, 79, 191-228.
[4]  Blair, S. L. (1993). Employment, family, and perceptions of marital quality among husbands and wives. Journal of Family Issues, 14, 189-212. doi:10.1177/019251393014002003
[5]  Bolzendahl, C. I., & Myers, D. J. (2004). Feminist attitudes and support for gender equality: Opinion change in women and men, 1974-1998. Social Forces, 83, 759-790. doi:10.1353/sof.2005.0005
[6]  Booth, A., Johnson, D. R., White, L., & Edwards, J. N. (1984). Women, outside employment, and marital instability. American Journal of Sociology, 90, 567-583. doi:10.1086/228117
[7]  Brown, S. L. (2000). Union transitions among cohabitors: The signify- cance of relationship assessments and expectations. Journal of Mar- riage and the Family, 62, 833-846. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00833.x
[8]  Bumpass, L., Sweet, J., & Cherlin, A. (1991). The role of cohabitation in declining rates of marriage. Journal of Marriage and Family, 53, 913-927. doi:10.2307/352997
[9]  Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Labor force participation rates, 1975-2008. URL. http://www.bls.gov/opub/working/page3b.htm
[10]  Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
[11]  Coverdill, J. E., Kraft, J. M., & Manley, K. S. (1996). Employment history, the sex typing of occupations, pay and change in gender-role attitudes: A longitudinal study of young married women. Sociologi- cal Focus, 29, 47-60.
[12]  Cunningham, M. (2007). Influences of women’s employment on the gendered division of household labor over the life course: Evidence from a 31-year panel study. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 422-444. doi:10.1177/0192513X06295198
[13]  Davis, S. N., & Greenstein, T. N. (2009). Gender ideology: Compo- nents, predictors, and consequences. Annual Review of Sociology, 35, 87-105. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115920
[14]  Duncan, G. J., & Hoffman, S. D. (1985). A reconsideration of the eco- nomic consequences of marital dissolution. Demography, 22, 485-497. doi:10.2307/2061584
[15]  Fan, P., & Marini, M. M. (2000). Influences on gender-role attitudes during the transition to adulthood. Social Science Research, 29, 258- 283. doi:10.1006/ssre.1999.0669
[16]  Gager, C. T., & Sanchez, L. (2003). Two as one? Couples’ perceptions of time spent together, marital quality, and the risk of divorce. Jour- nal of Family Issues, 24, 21-50. doi:10.1177/0192513X02238519
[17]  Gershuny, J., Bittman, M., & Brice, J. (2005). Exit, voice, and suffering: Do couples adapt to changing employment patterns? Journal of Mar- riage and Family, 67, 656-665. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00160.x
[18]  Goode, W. J. (1960). A theory of role strain. American Sociological Review, 25, 483-496. doi:10.2307/2092933
[19]  Greenstein, T. N. (1990). Marital disruption and the employment of married women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 657-676. doi:10.2307/352932
[20]  Greenstein, T. N. (1995). Gender ideology, marital disruption, and the employment of married women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 31-42. doi:10.2307/353814
[21]  Greenstein, T. N. (1996a). Gender ideology and perceptions of the fairness of the division of labor: Effects on marital quality. Social Forces, 74, 1029-1042.
[22]  Greenstein, T. N. (1996b). Husbands’ participation in domestic labor: Interactive effects of wives’ and husbands’ gender ideologies. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 585-595. doi:10.2307/353719
[23]  Greene, W. H., & Quester, A. O. (1982). Divorce risk and wives’ labor supply behavior. Social Science Quarterly, 63, 16-27.
[24]  Heaton, T. B., & Blake, A. M. (1999). Gender differences in determi- nants of marital disruption. Journal of Family Issues, 20, 25-45. doi:10.1177/019251399020001002
[25]  Hill, M. S. (1988). Marital stability and spouses’ shared time. Journal of Family Issues, 9, 427-451. doi:10.1177/019251388009004001
[26]  Hochschild, A. (1989). The second shift: Working parents and the re- volution at home. New York, NY: Viking Penguin.
[27]  Holden, K. C., & Smock, P. J. (1991). The economic costs of marital dissolution: Why do women bear a disproportionate cost?” Annual Review of Sociology, 17, 51-78. doi:10.1146/annurev.so.17.080191.000411
[28]  Huber, J., & Spitze, G. (1981). Wives’ employment, household behave- iors, and sex-role attitudes. Social Forces, 60, 50-69.
[29]  Johnson, J. H. (2004). Do long work hours contribute to divorce? Top- ics in Economic Analysis and Policy, 4, 1-23. doi:10.2202/1538-0653.1118
[30]  Kalil, A., Ziol-Guest, K. M., & Epstein, J. L. (2010). Nonstandard work and marital instability: Evidence from the national longitudinal sur- vey of youth. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 1289-1300. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00765.x
[31]  Kingston, P. W., & Nock, S. L. (1987). Time together among dual-earner couples. American Sociological Review, 52, 391-400. doi:10.2307/2095358
[32]  Minnotte, K. L., Minnotte, M. C., Pedersen, D. E., Mannon, S. E., & Kiger, G. (2010). His and her perspectives: Gender ideology, work- to-family conflict, and marital satisfaction. Sex Roles, 63, 425-438. doi:10.1007/s11199-010-9818-y
[33]  Montalto, C. P., & Gerner, J. L. (1998). The effect of expected changes in marital status on labor supply decisions of women and men. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 28, 25-51. doi:10.1300/J087v28n03_02
[34]  Nock, S. L. (1998). Marriage in men’s lives. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
[35]  Nordenmark, M., & Nyman, C. (2003). Fair or unfair? Perceived fair- ness of household division of labour and gender equality among women and men: The Swedish case. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 10, 181-209. doi:10.1177/1350506803010002004
[36]  Orbuch, T. L., & Eyster, S. L. (1997). Division of household labor among black couples and white couples. Social Forces, 76, 301-332.
[37]  Percheski, C. (2008). Opting out? Cohort differences in professional women’s employment rates from 1960 to 2005. American Socio- logical Review, 73, 497-517. doi:10.1177/000312240807300307
[38]  Pleck, J. H. (1985). Working wives, working husbands. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
[39]  Poortman, A. (2005). How work affects divorce. The mediating role of financial and time pressures. Journal of Family Issues, 26, 168-195. doi:10.1177/0192513X04270228
[40]  Presser, H. B. (1994). Employment schedules among dual-earner spouses and the division of household labor by gender. American Sociological Review, 59, 348-364. doi:10.2307/2095938
[41]  Presser, H. B. (2000). Nonstandard work schedules and marital instability. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 93-110. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00093.x
[42]  Ross, H. L., & Sawhill, I. V. (1975). Time of transition: The growth of families headed by women. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
[43]  Sanchez, L., & Gager, C. T. (2000). Hard living, perceived entitlement to a great marriage, and marital dissolution. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 708-722. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00708.x
[44]  Sayer, L. C., & Bianchi, S. M. (2000). Women’s economic independence and the probability of divorce: A review and reexamination. Journal of Family Issues, 21, 906-943. doi:10.1177/019251300021007005
[45]  Schmitt, M., Matthias, K., & Shapiro, A. (2007). Marital interaction in middle and old age: A predictor of marital satisfaction? International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 65, 283-300. doi:10.2190/AG.65.4.a
[46]  Sen, B. (2000). How important is anticipation of divorce in married women’s labor supply decisions? An intercohort comparison using NLS data.” Economics Letters, 67, 209-216. doi:10.1016/S0165-1765(99)00259-1
[47]  South, S. J., & Spitze, G. (1986). Determinants of divorce over the marital life course. American Sociological Review, 51, 583-590. doi:10.2307/2095590
[48]  Spitze, G., & South, S. J. (1985). Women’s employment, time expenditure, and divorce. Journal of Family Issues, 6, 307-629. doi:10.1177/019251385006003004
[49]  Sweet, J. A. & Bumpass, L. L. (2002). The national survey of families and households—Waves 1, 2, and 3: Data description and documentation. Retrieved from University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology website. http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/nsfh/home.htm
[50]  Sweet, J., Bumpass, L., & Call, V. (1988). The design and content of the national survey of families and households. Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin.
[51]  Teachman, J. (2010). Wives’ economic resources and risk of divorce. Journal of Family Issues, 31, 1305-1323. doi:10.1177/0192513X10370108
[52]  Vere, J. P. (2007). Having it all no longer: Fertility, female labor supply, and the new life choices of generation X. Demography, 44, 821-828. doi:10.1353/dem.2007.0035
[53]  Voydanoff, P. (1988). Work role characteristics, family structure demands, and work/family conflict. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 749-761. doi:10.2307/352644
[54]  White, L., & Keith, B. (1990). The effects of shift work on the quality and stability of marital relations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 453-462. doi:10.2307/353039
[55]  Yucel, D. (2012). Wives’ work hours and marital dissolution: Differential effects across marital duration. Sociology Mind, 2, 12-22.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus