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EDXRF Spectroscopic Elemental Analysis for Efficacy of Kibabii University Sewage Treatment System

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104992, PP. 1-12

Subject Areas: Mechanical Engineering

Keywords: Sewage Effluents, River Kibabii, Kenya, Heavy Metals

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Abstract

Elemental analysis of sewage effluents in Kibabii sewage treatment system was achieved via Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy with the aim of assessing the efficacy of the treatment system. Concentrations of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were measured based on clay soil “standards” in concentration range for Pb, Hg and As as 12.7 ppm, 14.3 ppm and 8.83 ppm respectively for certification. Among other probable reference materials, clay soil “standards” were used for certification in this work because of similarity in matrix composition with the sediments. The concentration for Hg, Pb, and As in the sewage sediments were 10.65 ± 2.28 ppm, 8.86 ± 2.92 ppm and 3.41 ± 2.18 ppm respectively in lagoon A. In lagoon B the levels were 3.82 ± 0.56 ppm, 6.35 ± 1.50 ppm and 1.67 ± 0.53 ppm respectively. Lagoon C showed a reduction in the levels with 3.74 ± 1.39 ppm for Hg and 2.30 ± 0.27 ppm for Pb. As was not detected in lagoon C, on the other hand, Cd was not detected in all the lagoons. The efficacies in the treatment varied from 30.34% - 51.78%, 37.63% - 65.41% and 76.63% - 84.81% for lagoon A, B and C respectively. The study was successful in quantifying the heavy elements in the lagoons from which the efficacy in the treatment process was determined. The study provided awareness on the elemental concentration levels in the Kibabii University sewage treatment system, hence creating awareness on what is released into River Kibabii. With this information, the surrounding community and the University can partner in order to mitigate the effects of heavy metals in the effluents in future due to the growth of the University day by day.

Cite this paper

Situma, Y. , Odhiambo, J. O. and Makokha, J. W. (2018). EDXRF Spectroscopic Elemental Analysis for Efficacy of Kibabii University Sewage Treatment System. Open Access Library Journal, 5, e4992. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1104992.

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