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Antimicrobial Activities of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) Fruit Extracts on Six Standard Microorganisms and Their Clinical Counterpart

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104951, PP. 1-13

Subject Areas: Pharmacology

Keywords: Syzygium aromaticum, Phytochemical, Antibacterial, Antifungal

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Abstract

Syzygium aromaticum is used in combination with other plants as an al-coholic infusion by traditional practitioners to treat infections. It has been selected for evaluation for its antimicrobial properties to justify its use in traditional pharmacopoeia. The fruits were used as plant material while the microbial germs consisted of six reference strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Candida albicans ATCC 35659 and their clinical counterparts. The extracts were obtained by aqueous decoction, hydroethanolic and ethanolic macerations. The phytochemical screening was performed by chemical staining tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the well diffusion method and the MIC and MBC or MFC were determined using the 96-well microplate dilution method. The results showed that 66.67% of the strains tested were sensitive to the aqueous extract with inhibition diameters ranging from 15 to 21 mm and MIC and MCB or MFC between 0.0976 - 0.3906 mg/mL and 0.1953 - 07812 mg/mL respectively, thus determining bacteriostatic activity. 100% of the germs tested were sensitive to hydroethanolic and ethanolic extracts. The inhibition diameters range from 12 - 28 mm for hydroethanolic extract with MIC and MBC or MFC ranging from 0.0488 - 0.3906 mm and 0.0488 - 0.7812 mm respectively. The ethanolic extract gave inhibition diameters of 12 - 26 mm; MIC and MBC or MFC ranging from 0.0976 - 0.7812 mm. Hydroethanolic extract gave three (3) bactericidal/fungicidal activities compared to four (4) as for ethanolic extract. These results prove the use of S. aromaticum among traditional recipes for treating infections in the pharmacopoeia but further studies remain important to produce traditionally improved drugs.

Cite this paper

Afanyibo, Y. , Anani, K. , Esseh, K. , Sadji, Y. , Idoh, K. , Koudouvo, K. , Agbonon, A. , Améyapoh, Y. , Tozo, K. and Gbeassor, M. (2018). Antimicrobial Activities of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) Fruit Extracts on Six Standard Microorganisms and Their Clinical Counterpart. Open Access Library Journal, 5, e4951. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1104951.

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