The study of heavy metals in water and sediment was
carried out in the upper reach of the New Calabar River, Niger Delta region in
Nigeria. Three sampling stations were selected which were
Choba, Ogbogoro and Aluu.
Water and sediment samples were collected and analysed, using the buck
scientific Atomic Absorption/Emission spectrometer
200 A model. Water Physico-chemical parameters were measured insitu. Dissolved Oxygen had an overall mean of 4.17 ± 0.83 mg/l, temperature
had mean value of 28.34℃ ± 1.07℃, pH had a mean value of 5.52 ± 0.54,
electrical conductivity had a mean value of 1123.39 ± 859.58 μs/cm, BOD had mean value of 4.45 ± 1.14 mg/l, salinity had a mean value of 1.47 ± 1.15 ppt while TDS had mean value of 598.13 ± 529.58 mg/l. Result of heavy metals in water indicated that
Zn had an overall mean value of 1.77 ± 0.53 ppm, Cr
had mean value of 0.65 ± 0.21 ppm, Pb
had a mean value of 0.19 ± 0.11
while Fe had an overall mean value of 1.52 ± 0.34 ppm.
Heavy metals in sediment indicate higher concentration than in Water: Zn had an
overall mean value of 7.90 ± 2.59 ppm, Cr
observed an overall mean value of 1.94 ± 0.81 ppm, Pb
had an overall mean value of 2.23 ± 0.61 ppm,
while Fe observed an overall mean value of 87.43
± 6.57 ppm.
The result indicated that the source of heavy metals in the aquatic environment
could be industrial effluent, domestic waste, dumping of scrap, vessel in the water
way and runoff from agricultural land.
Cite this paper
George, A. D. I. and Abowei, J. F. N. (2018). Physical and Chemical Parameters and Some Heavy Metal for Three Rainy Season Months in Water and Sediments of Upper New Calabar River, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Open Access Library Journal, 5, e4456. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1104456.
Tuzen, M. (2003) Determination of Heavy Metal in Fish Samples of Middle Black Sea (Turkey) by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectronmetry. Food Chemistry, 80, 119-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00264-9
Dural, M., Gosku, M.Z.L. and Ozak, A.A. (2007) Investigation of Heavy Metal Levels in Economically Important Fish Species Captured Form the Tuzla Lagoon. Food Chemistry, 102, 415-421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.03.001
Bettinentti, R., Giarei, C. and Provini, A. (2003) A Chemical Anaysis and Sediment Toxicity Bioassays to Assess the Contamination of Rivers Lambro (Northern Italy). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 45, 72-75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-002-0126-6
Yi, Y., Yang, Z. and Zhang, S. (2012) Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediment and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal in Fishes in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtse River Basin. Environmental Pollution, 159, 2576-2585.
Suresh, G., Sutharsan, P., Romasamy, V. and Venkatacholapathy, R. (2012) Assessment of Spatial Distribution and Potential Ecological Risk of the Heavy Metals in Relation to Granulometric Contents of Vicranam Lake Sediments. India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 84, 117-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.06.027
Opuluwa, O.D., Aremu, M.O., Ogbo, L.O., Magaji, J.I., Odiba, I.E. and Ekpo, E.R. (2012) Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water, Fish and Sediments Form UK. Stream, Nassarawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Current World Environment, 7, 213-220. https://doi.org/10.12944/CWE.7.2.04
Davies, O.A., Allison, M.E. and Uyi, H.S. (2006) Bio Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Water Sediments and Periwinkle (Tympanotonusfus catusvarvadula) from Electri Creek, Niger Detta. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5, 10.
Degregori, I., Pinochet, H., Arancibia, M. and Vida, A. (1996) Grown Size Effects on Trace Metal’s Distribution in Sediment from Two Coastal Area of Chile. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 57, 163-170. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001289900170
Fu, J. and Hazard, J. (2014) Heavy Metals in Surface Sediment of Jialu River, China: Their Relations to Environmental Factors. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 270, 102-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.01.044
Ayeloja, A.A., George F.O.A., Shorinmade, A.Y., Jimoh, W.A., Afolabi, Q.O. and Olwepo, K.D. (2014) Heavy Metal Concentration in Selected Fish Species from Eleyele Reservoir Ibadan Oyo State, South Western Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 8, 422-427. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJEST2014.1700
Mohammad, M., Sary, A.A. and Khodadadi, M. (2011) Determination of Heavy Metals in Two Barbs, Barbusgrypus and Barbusxanthopterus in Karoon and Dez Rivers, Khoozestan, Iran. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 87, 158-162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0302-3
Amiard, J.C., Amiard-Triquet, C., Barko, S., Pellerin, J. and Rainbow, P.S. (2016) Metallothioneons in Aquatic Invertebrates: Their Role in Metal Detorification and Their Use as Biomarkers. Tpxocp, 76, 160-202.
Dirican, S., Clilak, S., Clifter, H., Biyikeglu, M., Karaemar, S. and Yokus, A. (2015) Preliminary Study on Heavy Metal Concentration of Anetiliankhramulya, Lapoetatinca (Heckel, 1843) from Camlogozic Dam Like, Sivas Turkey. Journal of Environmental Health science and Engineering, 11, 1-6.
Ayodele, J.T., Momoh, R.U. and Aminu, M. (2014) Determination of Heavy Metals in Sharaba: Industrial Effluents. In: Book of Abstracts: 2nd National Environmental Seminar, FEPA, F.M.H. Natural Water Resource Institute, W.H.O Kaduna State, Waterboard, 14.
Abdulaziz, B.A. and Mohammad, H. (1997) Role of Epidemiological Studies in Determining Environmental Impact on Health in Saudi Aravia. In: Book of Abstracts: Development and Environmental Impact Conference, Biyadh, Saudi Arabia, 196 p.
Harabawy, A.S.A. and Mosleh, Y.Y.I. (2014) The Role of Vitamins A, C, E and Selenium as Antioxidants against Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Cadmium, Copper, Lead and Zinc on Erythrocytes of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 104, 28-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.02.015
O’Connor, M.I. (2006) Temperature Control of Larval Dispersal and the Implications for Marine Ecology, Evolution and Conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 1266-1271. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0603422104
Ibim, A.T., Gogo, O.O. and Igbani, F. (2016) The Ichthyofaunal Assemblage of the Lower and Upper Reaches of New Calabar River, Rivers State, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal Environment and Earth Science, 6, 21-23.
Lau, S., Mohammed, M.A., Tan, C.Y. and Sut-S, S. (1998) Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Freshwater Mollusks. The Science of the Total Environment, 214, 115-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00058-8
Fondriest Environment Inc. FEI (2014) Conductivity, Salinity and Total Dissolved Solid. Fundamentals of Environmental Measurements. http://www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements /parameters/water-quality/conductivity-salinity-TDS/
Abowei, J.F.N. and Ezekiel, E.N. (2003) Aspects of Some Physicochemical Parameters of the Fresh Water Reaches of the Lower Nun River, Niger Delta. International Journal of Science and Technology (IJST), 1, 40.
Daka, E.R., Ifidi, I. and Braide, S.A. (2006) Effect of Size and Salinity on the Accumulation of Heavy Metals in the Intertidal Gastropod Tympanotonus fuscatus Linnaeus. African Journal of Environmental Pollution and Health, 5, 1-7.
Boyd, C.E. and Liichtkoppler, F. (1779) Water Quality Management in Fish Pond. Research and Development, Series No. 22, International Centre for Aquaculture and Agriculture, Experimental Station, Auburn University, Alabama, 45-47.
Kaley, M., Aly, O. and Canil, M. (1999) Heavy Metal Concentration in Fish Disuse Form the North East Mediteranean Sea, Bulletin of Enron. Contamination and Toxicity, 63, 673-671. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001289901033
Macfarlane, G.B. and Burchett, M.D. (2000) Cellular Distribution of Cu, Pb and Zn in the Grey Mangrove Avicemnia marina (Forsk) Vierh. Aquatic Botany, 68, 45-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3770(00)00105-4
Aremu, M.O., Atolaiye, B.O., Shagye, D. and Moumouni, A. (2007) Determination of Trace Metals in TIilapia zillo and clariaslazera Fishes Associated with Water and Soil Sediment from Nasarawa, in Nasaraw State, Nigeria. India. J. Multi. Res., 3, 159-168.
Ekweozor, I.K.E. (2014) Appraisal of Industrialization and Environmental Pollution: A Marine Biology Perspective. 29th Inaugural Lecture of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, 185.
Khan, S., Cao, Q., Zheng, Y.M., Huang, Y.Z. and Zhu, Y.G. (2008) Health Risks of Metals in Contaminated Soils and Food Crops Irrigated with Waste Water in Beying. China Journal of Environmental Pollution, 152, 686-692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.056
Ukwa, U.D., Akinsaya, B. and Saliu, J.K. (2015) Parasite Load, Condition Factor and Heavy Metal Accumulation a Multiple Stressors on Fish in Lekk, Lagoon Lagos, Nigeria. 1st Annual SETAC Central and West Africa Conference, Enugu, 28-30 January 2015, No. 1410.
Kaizer, A.N. and Osakwe, S.A. (2010) Physiochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metal Levels in Water Sample from Five River Systems in Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 14, 83-87. https://doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v14i1.56501
Uyi, H.S. (2005) Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals (Cr, Cd and Pb) in Periwinkle; Tympanotanus furcatus var, radula from Elechi Creek Niger Delta. Bachelor of Science Project, in Fisheries and Aquatic Environment, Rivers State University of Science and, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, 41.
Gumgum, B., Unlu, E., Tez, Z. and Gulsun, Z. (1994) Heavy Metal Pollution in Water, Sediment and Fish from the Tigris River in Turkey. Chemosphere, 29, 111-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(94)90094-9
Ahmed, M.K., Baki, M.A., Islam, M.S., Kundu, G.K., Sakar, S.K. and Hossain, M.M. (2015) Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Tropical Fish and Shell Fish Collected from the River Buriganga, Bangladesh. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 22, 15880-15890. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4813-z