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Plastic Surgery Update on the Biology of Fat Cells and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Fat Grafting

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101505, PP. 1-26

Subject Areas: Surgery & Surgical Specialties

Keywords: Fat Biology, Signal Transduction, Preadipocytes, Adipocyte-Derived Cells, Stromal Vascular Fraction, Adipose Stem Cells, Tissue Engineering

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Abstract

The cell biology of adipocytes has led to a number of promising concepts in the last century, especially in the areas of obesity and associated diseases, lipid homeostasis and endocrine functions. Recent advances in adipogenesis had provided insights into understanding of the complex cues for influencing the cytoarchitecture, epigenomic remodeling, signaling pathways and transcription regulators on gene actions for both white and brown adipogenic progression from mesenchymal stem cells to matured committed adipocytes. The recent isolation of preadipocyte populations in vivo and their identification by specific markers may become crucial for manipulating these populations as they become potential targets of novel therapeutics in treating condition of metabolic dysfunctions such as obesity. Cell-biology-related research on preadipocyte (adiposal-mesenchymal cell) differentiation laid the foundation for discoveries of adipose-derived cells (both in stro- mal vascular fraction, or SVF, and adipose-derived stromal/stem cells, or ASCs), which had become an increasing interest to both stem cell biologists and clinicians because of their potential for an- giogenesis and suppression of inflammation for tissue engineering and treatments. The bur- geoning preclinical and clinical experience with human adult adipose-derived cells appears to be promising but interpretation of the current literature with in vitro studies, translational research and FDA-registered investigations emphasizes the need for standardized methods to advance basic science knowledge and beneficial safe clinical outcomes. Since the specialty of Plastic Surgery with its position statement on stem cells and fat grafting is committed to advancing evidence- base preclinical and clinical studies in compliance with FDA-regulations, an updated review of cell biology provides insights to achieve these goals.

Cite this paper

Sasaki, G. H. (2015). Plastic Surgery Update on the Biology of Fat Cells and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Fat Grafting. Open Access Library Journal, 2, e1505. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1101505.

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